Discussion How to plot on a galaxy map image

I'm writing my own tools for fun and while I'm happy with the results of data wrangling, I'm less satisfied with the plotting.
The reason for that is that I don't even know how to establish a relationship between points on an image of the galaxy and the actual x and z coordinates of the datasets I have. I've seen many images and a handful of websites that seem to be able to do this effortlessly, so I'm trying to find where to start.
Any input is much appreciated.
 
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